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Get Report Control Information. Known as:. Mentions for Eric Booker Resumes Resumes. Production Associate At Dsm Position:. Technologies, Inc. Stillman College - BA, Business. Metropolitan State College of Denver - B. Columbia Southern University - Business Management.
Owner At --Self Employed Position:. Eric Booker Location:. Publications Wikipedia. Eric Booker Eric "Badlands" Booker b. Despite the recent overthrowing of the tyrannical sultan, the reign of the new sultan, Baltor Elysian, may soon be over. After all, Baltor has simultaneously inherited throngs of powerful enemies, both foreign and domestic, who wish to conquer-and-command the tattered Sharia Empire. The first-of-ma Pursuant to imperial law, the minimum pe The war of all wars has only just begun for Sultan Baltor Elysian the 15th, immortal ruler of the planet called Elysian.
After all, he recently learned the dire news that the person who made into a vampire several centuries earlier is now being held prisoner The Making Author:. Back in , Jeb Arthur Maruso was found guilty and sentenced to death, but does that mean he's guilty? Relationship writer, Eric Booker, gives you the relationship advice necessary to improve any marriage.
Now of what great Wisdom Proteus was, I think it superfluous to relate, especially to them who have read the Poets: for out of them, I suppose, every one can tell how various Proteus was, shifting himself one while into this form, another while into that; so as it was very difficult to seize him. Also how he seem'd to know and fore-know all things. Others will have it, that Ninus whom the Scriptures call Ashur only repair'd it, and that Nimrod or Belus whom I take to be the same first founded it: But all agree that this City was very spacious; some say, three days Journey, others furlongs in circuit.
Volateranus affirms, that it was eight years a building, with above men continually at work upon it. Diodorus tells us, that the Walls of it were foot high, and the breadth capable to receive three Carts on a row: also that they were adorn'd with Turrets. The Ancient Philosophers were most of them addicted to Travel, as knowing how much it enlarges mens minds, to know the different manners of Countries remote from their own. For my part, the too great indulgence of my Parents heretofore, and the concerns of my Family now, hath deny'd me that happiness which I so much envy in others, and must endeavour to repair by my Studies.
I have never met with more ridiculous subjects for Laughter, than are most of our young Sparks newly come out of France, tyed to their Swords with a broad Belt upon their Loins, like a Monkeys Chain; when with their Hat under one arm, and the other hand at their Cod-piece, you shall hear nothing but of what they did in the French Camp, or at St. As it is more pleasant to Travel up and down ones own Country, than always to remain in ones own Parish; so is the pleasure no less heightned in Travelling into other Countries: for which purpose, he that can shelter himself under the protection of an Embassador, as one of his Retinue, will Travel the safest, cheapest, and have more respect shew'd him upon all occasions.
Concerning this subject, see those two admirable discourses in the Lord Bacon 's Essays, and Mr. Osborn 's Advice to his Son. For this reason Cicero was at Rome call'd King, because he ruled and guided the Senate which way he pleas'd by his Orations. For my own part, I confess my self to be a great enemy to all long formal Speeches, which seldom have wit or fancy sufficient to make amends for the tediousness of the Discourse: For Brevity is always good, be it, or be it not understood. Most of these Orators do so much study words, that they little at all regard either sence or matter: Nor can any thing be more insipid and impertinent than such a Sir Formal Trifle, who is at best but the stately figure of a Fool: The most eloquent of these Discourses are like our Syllabubs, little else but froth.
Whenever I hear any Author of a Book, or Orator, spend much time in complaining of his own weakness, I always take him at his word, and so listen no more to what he says. Rhetorick presents all things by a false light, when like the magnifying Glass it makes small things appear great. This Art of Rhetorick, saith Diodorus, was first invented by Mercury ; however Aristotle declares, that Empedocles was the first Author of it.
The Inhabitants of Cappadocia were esteem'd to be of a poysonous nature, in so much that if a Snake should draw bloud of a Cappadocian, the mans bloud would poyson it. Most of our ancient Poets have written to the same effect: As Horace, lib. Ovid Metam. Horace compares the unconstancy of vulgar people with this of Proteus: Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protea Nodo?
Some report the original of this Fiction to be the Diadem which Egyptian Kings used to wear, whereon were engraved divers shapes of all kinds of things. Mundi Now there is near unto Tyana a  Water for Oaths, consecrated as they report to Jupiter, which the Inhabitants call  Asbestos, that is to say, such as will not be consumed by fire.
The Spring it self is very cold; however it boyleth and bubbleth up like a Kettle over the fire.
Nor are they able to depart from thence, but abiding by the Water-side, they there confess their perjuries, and lament their calamity. He used the Attick, nor would he so far comply with the custom of the place to use any other. He drew the eyes of all men upon him for his incomparable Beauty. A seventh Son because unusual without any Daughters between, is naturally born with a healing Hand, according to the Vulgars opinion.
Thus was Plato 's swarm of Bees that lighted upon him in his Cradle, lookt upon with admiration; although perhaps, had not his Life been so eminent, it would never have been regarded or remembred. Now when Poets or vain Historians do tell of such prodigious Births of great persons. This matter of Fact is certainly true, and happen'd in Queen Elizabeths Reign. But to conclude this Subject, I question not but Hierocles in his Parallel, did impiously compare this Miracle of the Swans and Lightning, at Apollonius 's Birth, with that melody of holy Angels, and new Star appearing at Christ's Nativity, as being both equally strange, but not alike true.
For to believe any Stories that are not approved of by the publick Authority of our Church, is Superstition; whereas to believe them that are, is Religion. And Erasinus flowing from the Arcadian Lake Stymphalides, sinks and conceals his current, until he ascends in the Field of Argos ; thither convey'd as 'tis feign'd by Iuno. They esteem this Styx so sacred to the Gods, that if any of them swear by it, and violate their Oaths, he shall be deprived of his God-head, and drink no Nectar for an hundred years.
Acheron is said to be of the same nature with Styx, and belonging to the same Ferry-man Charon. Also another famous Water esteem'd of amongst the Ancients, was the River Lethe in Africk, that runs by the City Berenice, whereof if any one drinks, it will make him forget all things that are past.
Antigonus relates, that in Athamania, near a Temple dedicated to the Nymphs, there is a Fountain exceeding cold of it self, yet heats whatsoever hangs over it, setting dry Wood, or any combustible matter on fire. There are Lakes in Aethiopia, which procure to the drinker at least a Lethargy, if not down-right madness. Among the Cicones, a people of Thrace, there is a River which congeals the Bowels of all who drink thereof, and converts whatsoever it receives into stone: Neither are we without many such Springs in England, which will in a short time petrefie any Stick.
Likewise in divers parts of Christendom we have Waters of great vertue, as well to use inwardly as outwardly, such is the Spaw in Germany, the Waters of Burbon, and in England our mineral Wells of Tunbridge, Epsom, Barnet, North-hall, and Astrup ; also to apply outwardly, the Bath, and St. They frequently used to burn the Bodies of their Kings and Emperors in Sheets made of this Linen, to prevent the Ashes of their Bodies when burnt from mingling with the Ashes of the Wood. Pliny lib. I have seen a small piece of Mineral, as I suppose though resembling a grey Stone, and of an equal hardness, which my Father brought with him out of Italy, had the same quality not to be consumed with Fire; but whether it were of this Flax, or that Flax of Cyprus which Podocatanus a Knight of Cyprus brought to Venice, Anno Dom.
I know not, for as much as that Cyprus Flax would likewise prevail against the Fire. This Flax proceedeth from no Plant, as ours does, but from the Stone Amiantus, which being found in Cyprus, and broken with a Hammer, the Earthy dross purged from it, there remains fine hairy threds like Flax, which are woven into Cloath. Damasus in the Life of Pope Sylvester, writes, that Constantine ever made them mix some of this Linum vivum in the Lamps of his Chappel.
Dei, lib. What then can we think of our selves, when we dare to do that to God, which we fear to do unto man? Wherefore Montaign well observes, that he who tells a Lye, is bold towards God, and a coward towards man; for a Lye faces God, and shrinks from man. The Lord Bacon well observes, that the mixture of falshood with truth, is like an allay in gold or silver Coin, which may make the Mettal work the better, but still it embaseth it; such winding and crooked courses being like the goings of the Serpent, basely upon his belly, and not on his feet.
No vice is so destructive to humane society as falshood, nor would the greatest Lyar, Iesuit, or St.
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Omers Evidence, but be ashamed to justifie that perjury which he so much practises. Some will go to extenuate this Vice of Lying, by softning its name, and calling it breaking ones word ; however the thing is the same, no better or worse, a Lye. The French, as Montaigne writes, receive not the Lye from any man without Duelling him, as finding themselves more conscious of that Vice, than any other Nation. Nay if Christianity did not teach me otherwise I should think I might, in some cases, do evil that good might come of it, and save my Friends life from a Murtlierer, by denying even upon Oath if it be required that I know where he is.
Also Self-preservation tells me 'tis all one, whether I cut my Friends throat with a Knife, or with an Oath. Apollonius therefore wrote to them in an Epistle, that they should give over making themselves drunk with Water. He likewise made an inspection into the Doctrine of Epicurus, thinking that even that was not to be despised. Euxenus perceiving him to be of so great Spirit, asked him how he would begin such a course of Life?
And having said this, he began to abstain from eating the flesh of living Creatures, as being impure, and stupifying to the understanding. Wherefore he fed only on Fruits and Herbs; saying, that such meats were pure, which the Earth did afford unto men. He was also of opinion, that Wine was a pure kind of drink, as proceeding from a mild Plant; yet nevertheless he esteem'd it an enemy to the settled state of the mind, in respect that it sometimes disturb'd the Air of the Soul. Others, as Athenaeus lib.
Strabo called it the Mother of Cities, from the great Learning which flourish'd therein, surpassing as well Athens as Alexandria. Paul, as he mentions of himself, when speaking to the Tribune, he says, Acts This City for its Antiquity was freed from the Roman yoke.
Besides this Tarsus of Cilicia, there were many other Towns bore the same Name; whereof one was situated in Spain, near the River Betis, and two miles distant from Corduba, being built by the Phaenicians, who Traded into those parts; Strabo lib. Quintus Curtius, lib. This River, as Vitruvius writes, is famous for curing the Gout; Cydnum podagrae mederi docet, cruribus eo mersis, Vitruv. He was so famous for his skill in Physick, that he was worshipped for a God, especially among the Epidauri ; from whence he was called Epidaurius.
Pausanias in his Corinthiac. And that observing flashes of Fire to evaporate out of the head of the Infant, he supposed it to be of a Divine extraction, and soon spread the fame thereof all over those parts. From whence, as St. Augustine writes, he came to Rome ; that so expert a Physician might practise with the greater credit in so famous a City. For the Serpent was sacred unto him, not only as Macrobius says for the quickness of his sight, but because he is so restorative and soveraign in Physick: Serpens Epidaurius: Horat.
And here Aesculapius is said to have converted himself into that form, because by health men seem to renew their youth, like a Snake that hath cast her Hackle. In this shape, saith Lactantius, he sail'd to Rome, and is said by Pherecides to have Serpentine feet. He chose his Seat in the Isle of Tyber, and then vanish'd out of sight; where his Temple was built, and his Festivals kept in the Calends of Ianuary. And now in the Hortyards of St. Epidaurus, a City in Peleponnesus, was famous for the Shrine of Aesculapius, to which all sick persons that did resort, were as both Strabo and Iamblicus write inform'd in their sleep what Medicine would cure their Distemper.
When the Romans were afflicted with the Pestilence, they sending Ogolenus to consult Apollo 's Oracle at Delphos, he directed them to his Son Aesculapius at Epidaurus, with Orders to carry him to Rome ; but the Epidaures were unwilling to part with their God, or rather his Image yet notwithstanding Aesculapius in the form of a Serpent went aboard one of the Roman Ships, and so along with them to Rome.
But Ptolomy lib. This Countrey is famous for producing Poysons, which gave occasion to Medea in the Fable to bring all her Poysons from hence. If the primitive Christians had been so little curious or inquisitive, how could Christianity ever have been received in the World? For my part, neither Socrates, Plato, or Aristotle, shall perswade me, if my Judgment be not convinced by Reason of what they say; Reason is the only Mistress I court, and to her alone will I pay my Devotion.
Those Arguments which will deceive in a false Religion, cannot instruct in a true one; but the beginning at Faith, and ending at Reason, would deceive in a false Religion; therefore it cannot instruct in a true. What proceeds from common Reason we know to be true, but what proceeds from Faith we only believe it; and there is a vast difference between knowing and believing. I will never embrace an Opinion, only because a great many hold it; because then I must turn Turk, that Religion being the most universal of any we know.
Nor to those Rules of Self-denial, Mortification, and Patience, which our Doctrine teaches, since Monsieur Tavernier gives us an account of some Indians that may likewise exceed us in that way. No, I will rely wholly upon my Reason, and yet not obstruct my Christianity. For as Vadian saith in his Paradice, Magnos errores magnorum virorum autoritate persuasi transmittimus.
I cannot but laugh at those Pedants, who have no stronger Argument for the truth of what they say, than to alledg, 'tis a Maxim; as if their Maxims are more certain than their other Propositions. However, I'le believe them when they shew me a Philosophy, whose Principles can neither be question'd nor doubted of, and wherein all the World agrees; otherwise 'tis ridiculous: for 'tis easie to prove any thing, when one adjusteth Principles to Opinions, and not Opinions to Principles.
Again, one main Argument which I have often heard used, is that St. Ierom or Thomas Aquinas says so: In the same manner one told Dr. Moreover, how do we know but that those Ancients no more than we, have not always written what they believed? All men ought to reverence Antiquity, but not conclude it infallible: yet says Mr. Osborn I should take her word sooner in Divinity, than any other Learning, because that is clearest at the beginning; whereas all other Studies more muddy, receive clarification from experience.
As for instance, The Romans that had conquer'd the greatest part of the then known World, made no scruple of tolerating any Religion whatsoever in the City of Rome it self, unless it had something in it that could not consist with their Civil Government: nor do we read that any Religion was there prohibited, save only the Iews ; who thinking themselves the peculiar people of God held it unlawful to acknowledge subjection to any mortal King or State whatsoever.
All wise Princes, till they were over-born with Faction, or solicited by peevish persons, gave toleration to differing Sects, whose Opinions did not disturb the publick Interest. And the experience which Christendom hath had in this last Age is Argument enough, That toleration of differing Opinions is so far from disturbing the publick Peace, or destroying the Interest of Princes and Commonwealths, that it advantages the publick, and secures peace; because there is not so much as the pretence of Religion left to such persons to contend for it, being already indulged to them.
When France fought against the Hugonots, the spilling of her own bloud was Argument enough of the imprudence of that way of promoting Religion, together with the prosperity she hath enjoy'd, ever since she gave permission to them. As for us, the very Revelation, whereby we have a knowledge of them, is not so clear, as that a man should incur civil punishment for doubting of it: since this Revelation, though at first confirm'd by Miracles, and so infallible to them that saw those Miracles; yet is it not so to us, for that both the Miracles and Doctrine come down to us only by Tradition.
And Christ says, Had I not done these things among ye, observe those words, among ye your want of faith had not been imputed to you for sin. There is no Religion, saith Lactantius, so erroneous, which hath not somewhat of wisdom in it, whereby they may obtain pardon, having kept the chiefest duty of man, if not in deed, yet in intention. Thirdly, It does no ways advantage Religion; for the Apostles themselves, although they were infallibly assured of their Doctrine, and could also make their Hearers assured of it by Miracles, yet never desired that the Refractory should be compell'd to embrace it.
Therefore I could wish, that men would use one another so charitably and so gently, that no errour or violence tempt men to hypocrisie, rendring sincerity both troublesom and unsafe. How vain a thing is it for men to pretend every Opinion necessary in so high a degree, that if all said true, or indeed any two of them in Sects, and for ought I know there may be it is to one but that every man is damned; for every Sect damns all but it self, and that is damned of There resorted to Aegas the Cilicians, and all such as dwelt round about those parts, to see Apollonius: in so much that it became a common Proverb amongst them, Whither go you so fast?
Here I conceive it will not be improper to relate what then happen'd in the Temple; for that I have undertaken to give you a Narrative, containing the Deeds of such a man as was in esteem with the very Gods themselves. An Assyrian Youth that came to Aesculapius, was riotous even whilst he was sick, and liv'd or rather died in Drunkenness. He was taken with a Dropsie, but pleasing himself with his Drinking, he took no care of curing his Drought. To whom Apollonius answer'd, That he knew something would be much worth to him in that condition: for that as he thought 'twas only Health which he wanted.
Whereupon the man replied, That indeed was the thing which Aesculapius did promise, but not perform. Be favourable in your words, I pray, said Apollonius for he always bestows Health upon such as are willing to have it; but thou dost those things which are contrary to thy Disease: for addicting thy self to Debauchery, thou satiatest thy moist and almost rotten Entrails with delicious Food, thereby adding Mud to the pre-existent Water.
Therefore St. The drinking a little Wine for the Stomachs sake, hath made as many good Fellows, as the Thief upon the Cross, Highway-men. However at present I shall speak only of their Diet. What can be more lewd saith Seneca than a sumptuous Supper, wasting a Knight's Revenues? The Example of these kinds of Luxury, together with the ill consequences thereof, may have been a great Motive to induce the wisest of the Philosophers to such a kind of Abstinency. Nor do I ever receive a bag of Money without as solemn a Thanksgiving, as over a dish of Meat, since without the one, I could not enjoy the other.
As for the times of Eating, let them that can do it, comply with the custom of their Country; but for my self, neither in this nor any other thing will I ever be a slave to Presidents, but by eating when I am an hungry, and drinking when I am a dry, enjoy more satisfaction in one Meal, than in ten eaten without an Appetite. However, were I to choose any one time for my chief Meal, it should be at six in the Evening, like the ancient Romans, since I can by no means approve of that great interruption of Business occasion'd by our Dinners; when we break off at Mid-day, and most commonly render our selves unapt for action all the day after.
As for fine Cloaths, were all men wise, nothing would appear more ridiculous, but the folly of the Vulgar renders them in some measure necessary; for they, being only able to judge of the outside, set an estimate upon the man, according to the number of his Tags, Laces and Ribbons. I never see any persons wear Cloaths above their quality, but I fear they come dishonestly by them, and either receiv'd them from a Gallant, or run on the score for them: And whether they paid for them or no, yet they are little to be trusted; since he that lives above his Fortune, is generally tempted to feed his own extravagancy with dishonest and indirect dealing.
The Ancients were much addicted to this Vice; Pliny lib. Marcellinus lib. And at publick Feasts they often changed them, only for ostentation to shew their variety, at least so often as the several Courses were serv'd in: Vndecies una surrexti Zoile coena, Et mutata tibi est Synthesis undecies. Neither was the price less considerable than the number; for ten thousand Sesterces were frequently given for a Cloak: — Millibus decem dixti Emptas lacernas munus esse Pompillae.
A pound of Violet Purple was sold for an hundred pence, in the time of Augustus ; as witnesseth Cornelius Nepos, who lived and wrote during his Reign. Per cujus digitos currit levis annulus omnes. At the Battle of Cannae, the Carthaginians gather'd from the Fingers of the slaughter'd Romans who died in that Battel, three Modii ; which by Hannibal were sent to Carthage, as a token of the greatness of his Victory. And Nonnius the Senator, being proscribed by Anthony, carried with him in his flight no other Goods but only one Ring, wherein was set an Opal, valued at twenty thousand Sesterces, Pliny lib.
To the same purpose writes Iuvenal, Sat. Again, Perque caput ducti lapides, per colla manusque, Et pedibus niveis fulserunt aurea vincla: Manil. Suetonius ch. Their Ropes of Pearl were so rich, that St. Ierom tells us, uno filo villarum insunt pretia, upon one Rope hang the prices of divers Lordships: in vita Pauli Eremitae. But they exceeded most in Jewels they wore in their Ears; Quare uxor tua locupletis domus censum auribus gerit? Seneca likewise telleth us, de Benef. Which immodesty is thus taxed by Horace: Cois tibi pene videre est Vt nudam.
Diodorus writeth, that Pallas first taught the use of Cloathing and Apparel. Eusebius saith, that one Vso, a Sicilian born, was the first that made Cloathing for men of Beasts Skins. Boethoius invented the Shoomakers Art. Attalus first taught men to weave Gold in Cloaths. The Greeks devised the Mantle. And the Hetrurians, Robes of State. There is no time in my opinion so ill spent as that of Dressing and Undressing, which like Penelope 's Web is nothing but doing and undoing, with a Parenthesis of ten hours betwixt the one and the other.
Montaign is of opinion, that our Skin may as well bear nakedness as theirs: witness divers Nations, which yet never knew the use of Cloaths. The ancient Gauls were but slightly apparell'd. No more were the wild Irish, in so cold a Climat.
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Nor do I believe the ancient Britains receiv'd any great warmth from their Woad, the only guard they had from the cold. Heretofore in Greece, as also in most of the Eastern Countreys, it was esteem'd for a great punishment to have the Head or the Beard shaven. Also Gandinus de malefic. Thevet in his Cosmography tells us, that 'tis at this day a punishment in the Isle of Candy to cut off any mans Beard. Again, By an Ordinance of the Emperor Frederick it was enacted, That if any person shall pluck off the Hairs of anothers Head or Beard, he shall forfeit ten pounds to the party offended, and twenty pounds more for the satisfaction of Justice.
Denis, and St. Germain des prez.. In former times likewise, the Turks were used to let the Hair of their Heads and Beards grow to a very great length; for we read in their Histories publish'd by Leonclavius, that to cut the Beard with Scissers was not a thing in use. This custom of wearing Beards or Whiskers may be more necessary in those Parts, than in our more cold and Northern Climates, where that brutish Vice of carnal Copulation with our own Sex is not so usual, nor by consequence a smooth Chin in so much danger.
Alexander of Alexandria writeth, that the Abantes and the Mysians, a People of Arabia, did the same thing in time of War, and for the same reason. The like also do the Americans, and other West-Indians at this day. Paul followed this Rule, as most conformable to wisdom and reason, when he saith, 1 Cor. Plutarch telleth us, Vita Thesei that the custom of the young men was, when they came to full age, they went and shaved their Hair in the Temple of Delphos. And that for a man to swear by his Beard, was esteem'd a most holy and Religious Oath.
If I bear record of my self, my record is vain, therefore in all such cases the testimony of others is requisite. For two conspiring, one to seem dead and buried in a hollow Vault, which is easie to be done and the other to raise him again, will deceive many; but many conspiring, one to be dead, the other to bring him to life, and all the rest to bear witness, will deceive more. So that the main stress of all these things relyes upon the nature of the Evidence.
Nay, 'tis possible for a man to tell that Tale which he made himself so often, till at last the Author of it really believes it true. Others have gone so far in their false Testimony, that they could not with Honour dis-engage themselves; and so before they were aware, have been drawn into a forfeiture of their own Lives, rather than recant. Now the more easie they are to be imposed upon, the less credit ought their Testimony to have. And of Iulian the Apostate, written in Ammianus Marcellinus, lib.
But whosoever first invented it, yet the Priests alone made themselves the Interpreters of Dreams, in which Art none were thought more skilful than the Chaldeans. Plato saith, it is the Office of Wisdom to draw Divining Instructions from them, against future times; wherein I see nothing but the wonderful experience, that Socrates, Xenophon and Aristotle men of unquestionable Authority relate of them. Many great Philosophers have been given up to this delusion of Dreams, as Democritus, Aristotle, and his Follower Themistius, as also Synesius the Platonick, so far building upon examples of Dreams, which some accident hath made to be true, that from thence they endeavour to perswade men that all Dreams are real.
Macrobius distinguishes Dreams into five several kinds: 1. Nay the distinction of Dreams was so accurate, that in the making of them Somnus was feigned to have no less than three Servants wait upon him: for if he would have a Dream that should concern Men, he made use of Morpheus ; if Beasts, of Phobetor, as men called him or Icolos, as call'd by the Gods; if inanimate Creatures, of him whose name was Phantasos. As to the external or internal causes of Dreams, there are different opinions: For Aristotle refers the cause thereof to common sence, but placed in the fancy: the Platonicks reckon them among the specifick and concrete Notions of the Soul: Avicen makes the cause of Dreams to be, an ultimate intelligence moving the Moon in the middle of that light, with which the fancies of men are illuminated while they sleep.
Averroes places the cause in the imagination; Democritus ascribes it to little Images, or Representatives separated from the things themselves; but Iulius Caesar Vaninus, together with all Physicians, refer the variety of Dreams, to the variety of Meats we eat, imputing the cause thereof to the vapours and humours which ascend up to the Brain. Also the Lacedemonians kept men of purpose to sleep in the Temple of Pasithia, to watch for Dreams: as silly people use amongst us to go watch at the Church-door, and know who should dye the next year: The like was done in Egypt, in the Temple of Serapis: Also Pluto in Aristophanes did the same.
Many have written upon this subject of Dreams, whereof the most eminent are Artemidorus and Daldianus. Plutarch mentions other Books concerning this Art, which were found in Mithridates 's Study. Artemon Milesius wrote two and twenty Books of it himself; and there is a Copy of about fourscore Senarii Verses in Greek, shewing the signification of such or such a sight in a Dream.
Other Treatises there are, falsifyed under the Names of David and Solomon, containing nothing but Dreams upon Dreams: however Marcus Cicero in his Book of Divination, hath given sufficient Reasons against the vanity and folly of those that give credit to Dreams. Some report, that he never had any Master to instruct him, but that he acquired all his knowledge by his own labour and industry.
He held Fire to be the Principle of all things; that the World was full of Spirits and Daemons; that the Sun was a resplendent Flame, not being any bigger then it appeared to our eyes; that all things were govern'd by Destiny: besides many other strange opinions, concerning the production of Natural things, all mention'd in Diogenes Laertius, lib.
In his old age he fell into a Dropsie, but would not use the help of Physicians: at last, having fallen into some dirt, and then lying in the Sun to dry himself, he fell asleep, and as some report was devour'd by Dogs in his sleep. Suidas tells us, that he had for his Disciples Pythagoras, Hesiod, and Xenophon. He used to say of himself, that when he was young he knew nothing, and when he was old he was ignorant of nothing.
There were four others of this name, besides this Philosopher, viz. APollonius on a certain time beholding much Bloud sprinkled on the Altar, and Sacrifices laid thereon, together with Egyptian Oxen and Swine of a vast bigness lying slain, some fleying them, and others cutting them into pieces; also two Golden Bowls dedicated, wherein were placed most incomparable and precious Indian Stones, he went to the Priest and ask'd him what was the meaning of all this?
To whom the Priest answer'd, But you would more wonder, if you consider, that this man hath yet made no Request, nor stayed the usual time, nor received health from the God, nor had that which he desires; for he came but yesterday, and yet sacrificeth so generously. Moreover, he promiseth to sacrifice and dedicate more largely, if the God will but grant him his request: for he is very rich, and possesseth more Wealth in Cilicia, than all the rest of the Cilicians put together. Now his Petition to the God is, to restore him his Eye that is lost.
Apollonius as his manner was, even in his old age having fix'd his eyes upon the ground, enquired what was the mans name? But Aesculapius appearing by night to the Priest, said unto him, Let this rich man be gone, having according to his deserts; for he deserves to lose his other Eye which remains. Hereby he taught this piece of Philosophy, That it becometh not them who Sacrifice, or offer Gifts unto the Gods, to exceed a medium. Secondly, Oracles of the same stamp. Fourthly, Interpretation of Dreams in what sence they pleased.
Fifthly, doing things which seem'd Miracles to the Vulgar, only by Natural means, or otherwise by the confederacy of Priests and Impostors amongst themselves. Sixthly, by intruding Traditions of great Persons or Actions in former times, without alledging any certainty of them. And lastly, by adventuring to tell more Fables and Lyes, because the foolish could not, and the wise durst not contradict them.
That which is of a Divine Nature, like the Deity it self admits of neither mixture nor pollution from any gross and Elementary substances; therefore it is not to be believed, that those necessary and Divine Truths which do really come from God, can be any more shaken in mens minds, or defiled by any Superstitions, than the Sun-beams could be defiled by shining on a Dunghill: the Heathen Religion was mixed, alter'd and corrupted; therefore did it not come from God, as a necessary and Divine Truth. Universality is esteem'd a main Argument of a true Church; now the several Sects in any Religion, takes away this Universality.
Another Argument that Priests make use of to prove a true Religion, is Antiquity: and here, that Priest who begins his Religion at a later time than the beginning of History, comes short of this mark of Antiquity, and casts a blemish on Gods providence for the former times. Campanella in his Atheismus Triumphatus, reduces the wicked Objections of our modern Atheists against Christianity, into six principal Quaeries, whereof the first reflects upon the Antiquity of our Religion: however because they are short, and of no force, I will here venture to insert them, just as I find them in him.
Et cur nunc tam innumerae damnantur Gentes? Si enim homo ob tantillum inobedientiae tanta passus est mala, nunc quia occidit Deum ipsum, quanto majora pati debet, nec salvari illius sanguine, sed irreparabilius damnari? But these Arguments are so weak and futilous, that they need no Answer, as appears by the very first: for all men that understand Christianity, know that we hold Christ to have been from all Eternity, and so he speaks of himself; before Abraham was, I am, Iohn 8.
But to proceed: The definition of Religion, according to St. Austin, is that which prescribeth the reverence and ceremony of some superiour Nature, which they call Divine. Lactantius distinguisheth Superstitious persons, from those we call Religious, thus; the Superstitious are those who reverence the surviving memory of the Dead, or who out-living their Parents, adore their Images at home, as their Houshold Gods: which many of the Heathens did. Plutarch defines them to be such, who are by fear brought to believe Daemons or Gods.
But Mr. Hobbs makes Religion to be Tales publickly allow'd, and Superstition to be Tales that are not allow'd of by publick Authority. Now he that will examine all the Religions in the World, must in the first place cast off all menaces and threats; Secondly, he must comfort himself with the assurance that God is the communis Pater of all mankind; and Thirdly, he must learn how to distinguish the True, from the Likely, the Possible, and the False, in all Religions. First, there are holy precepts for a good Life, in honour of the Supreme God, contain'd in the Alcoran.
Secondly, which cannot come but from one extraordinarily endued with Gods holy Spirit. Thirdly, and were delivered to Mahomet by the conveyance of the Angel Gabriel. Fourthly, therefore constituted so perfect a Religion, that without it none can be saved. Here the first proposition is true. As for the fourth proposition, it is absolutely false; there being a more perfect Religion than Mahomets, since it contains many absurdities and therefore not such as in it men can only be saved.
By these and such other Institutions, they obtain'd in order to their end, which was the peace of the Commonwealth that the common people in their misfortunes, laying the fault on neglect or errour in their Ceremonies, or on their own disobedience to the Laws, were less apt to mutiny against their Governours. Also being entertain'd with the pomp and pastime of Festivals, made in honour of their Gods, they not only imbibed their Religion, by drinking the Founder's Health, as is usual at such times but likewise needed only Bread, to keep them from discontent, and murmuring against the State.
And thus you see how the Religion of the Gentiles was a part of their Policy. WHen upon the repulse given to the Cilician, many flock'd to the Temple, Apollonius demanded of the Priest, whether the Gods were just?
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The Priest answering they were most just, Apollonius further ask'd him, whether they were wise? What said the Priest is wiser than God? To which the Priest replied, that therein the Gods seem'd most of all to excel men; for that they through the weakness of their Vnderstandings do not sufficiently know their own Affairs, whereas the Gods know not only their own, but also the Affairs of men. You have answer'd very well and truly, said Apollonius to the Priest; wherefore seeing the Gods know all things, it seems very reasonable that he who cometh to the Temple of God, should  pray after this manner: O ye Gods, give me that which I ought to have!
Now to good and holy men, good things are due, but to wicked, the contrary. Many such pieces of Philosophy did Apollonius utter, whilst he was but a Youth, and lived at Aegas. But Christ was the first that ever instructed us in any set form of Prayer, as appears by St. Matthew 's Gospel. Now for the custom of turning our faces towards the East when we pray, that as Folyd. Virgil observes, lib. The actions of divine Worship are signs of our intention to honour God: and such are Prayers and Thanksgiving. First, Prayers; for not the Carvers, when they made Images, were thought to make them Gods, but the people that pray'd to them.
And so sings the Poet: Mart.
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Qui fingit sacros auro vel marmore vultus, Non facit ille Deos, qui rogat, ille facit. Secondly, Thanksgiving; which differeth from Prayer in divine Worship, no otherwise, than that Prayers procede, and Thanks succeed the Benefit; the end both of the one and the other, being to acknowledg God, for Author of all Benefits, as well past as future.
However, I cannot but prefer Thanksgiving above Prayer; for that every man would serve his own turn by Prayer if he could, but few are so generous to give thanks when their turns are served. To this purpose Cyrus told his Father Cambyses, That he shall more easily obtain any thing of the Gods, who doth not fawn upon them in distress, but in prosperity calls most upon them.
These Seneca calls Sacrificae preces. In some Countreys, the praise of the present King or Magistrate was set forth; but this was not ordinarily used. Plato in Alcib. That the most sumptuous Sacrifices that could be made, were not so acceptable to the Gods, as Supplications offer'd with a pious Soul. The word precari, which more properly than orare signifies to pray, is yet taken in an ambiguous sence; for unless the Preces be limited with either bonae or malae, it is not easie to know in what sence they are taken: therefore the ancient Iews were used to say, Bonas preces precamur.
The Ancients when they came to pray to their Gods, presented themselves Capite obvoluto, or their heads cover'd with woollen, and an Olive-branch in their hands, casting themselves down at the feet of the Image of that God to whom they address'd their Prayers and Vows. The Wooll was not tyed, and so fasten'd to the Boughs, but only wreath'd and wrapped up in them: from whence it may be Aethea, in the Tragedy of the Theban Women Petitioners v.
The Italians likewise used such Boughs; for Virgil says, Iamque oratores aderant ex urbe Latina Velati ramis oleae veniamque rogantes. Now the custom was with these Boughs, if they were doubtful of prevailing, to touch the Knee of the Statue of the God. Their usual gesture in praying was to hold up their arms towards Heaven, as you may see it in Eurip. At the same time another commanded the people Favere Linguis, or to be silent, whilst the Tibicen or Musician play'd by fits on the Pipe. In some Countreys much clamour and loud speaking was used when they called upon their Gods; which we see Elias wisely derided in the Priests of Baal.
The Poets used to say, that Prayers were the Daughters of Iupiter, but lame, because they did not always obtain what they desired. There are hardly any forms of publick Prayer made by their Priests extant; and if any, they are too obscure to be understood. Which Petition had in it so little charity for others, that Antoninus well observes, either we should not pray at all, or pray more absolutely and more charitably. O Jupiter, give us good things whether we ask them or no; but those things that are evil give us not, though we crave them never so much. Plautus in Pseudolo.
I beseech the stay of the Empire, that he would be pleas'd to give assistance to the Commonwealth, the whole State, and my Fortunes. But these were only private Prayers, and not the publick used at dedication of Temples, and making of the more solemn Sacrifices, and which were used in the morning, at mid-day, and at night, after great Victories obtain'd, when sometimes Supplications, or Prayers, with Thanksgivings, were made for the space of fifteen days; as you may see in Cael.
The order and manner of celebrating them, were set down in their Books called Rituales. Now in Prayer there are two things to be consider'd: First, The person petitioning; and Secondly, The thing petition'd for. Wherefore Cicero says, de Legib. Let men that approach the Gods, be chaste and Religious, for they that do otherwise, shall be punish'd of God himself. Again also, Let not the wicked presume to pacifie the wrath of God by Presents. Also Plato interdicted all wicked men from attempting to appease the Gods: Plato de Legib.
Upon this Consideration, the Ancients took care, that those Women who were imploy'd about their sacred places and Temples, should abstain from all filth and pollution nine days and nights, before they were admitted to that Office. Thus were Cybeles Priests gelded with a sharp Stone, only to preserve them chaste. Also in Athens they drank Hemlock, to allay their desires of coming to their Wives; and the Women that vow'd a Religious Life, lay upon a sort of Leaves, that were proper for the same purpose. Demosthenes likewise speaking of the chief Priests and Overseers of the holy Ceremonies, saith, I am of opinion that he who handleth sacred things, and taketh care of what belongs to the Service of the Gods, ought to be chaste and continent, not only such a number of days, but that in his whole Life, he abstain from all dishonesty.
Methinks Chrysostom in his Sermon of Covetousness, hath a pretty similitude upon this subject: The face of the Soul saith he is the Conscience; and as a fair face delighteth those that behold it, so is a clean Conscience no less beautiful in the eyes of God. The second thing to be considered in Prayer, is the Boon petition'd for: and herein great caution must be used, that it be such a thing as is fit for God to grant, and us to implore. Now as Montaign lib. Thus the Covetous man prayeth for the vain increase and preservation of his superfluous ill-gotten Treasure; det vitam, det opes, Horat.
The Lover prays to satisfie his Lust; and he that hath purchased Bishops-Lands or Crown-Lands, prays for the ruine of Episcopacy and Monarchy: He that is possess'd of Abby-Lands, prays devoutly for the downfall of Antichrist; as I do my self, upon the same occasion. Margaret Queen of Navarre maketh mention of a young Prince, who going about an amorous Assignation to lye with an Advocates Wife of Paris, and his way lying through a Church, he never pass'd by that Holy place either going or coming, without offering up his prayers to God to be his help and furtherance.
There are few men would dare to publish to the World those secret requests they make unto God; wherefore the Pythagoreans very wisely ordain'd them to be made in publick, that all might hear them; and that no man should dishonourably invoke God, or require any undecent or unjust thing of him. Brown is of opinion, that it is not a ridiculous Devotion to say a prayer before a Game of Tables; because saith he in Sortiligies and matters of greatest uncertainty, there is a settled and pre-ordered course of effects: and so there is in Murder; but yet I should think it a presumption to implore the Divine assistance either in one, or the other.
Nil ergo optabunt homines? Shall men wish nothing?
Volume I, Part II.
We are taught by many of the Ancients, what requests we ought to make at prayer; Solomon begg'd for Wisdom. That best of Poets Iuvenal advises, Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano. But that learned Emperor Antoninus says, Whereas one prayeth that he may compass his desire to lye with such a Woman; pray thou, that thou mayst not lust to lye with her: Another, how he may be rid of such a one; pray thou, that thou mayst so patiently bear with him, as that thou have no such need to be rid of him.
Another, that he may not lose his Child; but pray thou, that thou mayst not fear to lose him. To this end and purpose let all thy prayers be, and then see what will be the event. Of this boldness in directing God, I know not any amongst us so guilty as those gifted Brethren, — Who with short Band and Hair, Do belch and snuffle to prolong a Prayer.
These are the men who pray by the Spirit, till the Dinner is spoil'd, and their Auditors almost starved with hunger and cold; for the Spirit will neither feed us within, nor warm us without. I do not find anciently either among the Iews or Gentiles, that long Prayers were approved of, or publickly permitted, especially according to the Spirit that is, the Fancy of him that prays. Nay our Saviour himself whose example we ought to imitate in this, as well as in all other things teaches us the contrary, by his short, but Divine Prayer.
However, Prayer in general is most commendable; for what can be greater relief and comfort to a man in affliction, than to have a God to flee to in his distress? The greatest ease in sorrow, is to have a Friend to break our mind to; and if so, how much greater relief and satisfaction must it be for an afflicted man to have God for his refuge, who is so well able to counsel, direct and assist him! Wherefore Tertullian saith, that a Christian while he is at his Prayers with his hand lift up to God, is insensible of all punishment.
Take a Dog says the Lord Bacon and mark what courage he assumes when back'd by a man, who is to him as a God, or melior Natura : now of the same use is confidence in God to men; for it animates them with that assurance, as ever renders them successful. Of the power of Prayer, hear what the generality of the Ancients thought: Et dominum mundi flectere vota solent.
Flectere iratus, voce rogante, Deus. Sed solet interdum fieri placabile numen, Nube solet pulsa candidus ire dies. Moreover, if Historians do not lye for Gods cause, we have many famous examples of the powerful effects of Prayer: as was that of the Plague in Rome, stopt by the prayers of Gregory the Great, A. With many others of the like nature, too long here to be produced.
ONe of the Principal men among the Cilicians, being very infamous, and much addicted to his Lusts, no sooner heard of  Apollonius 's Beauty, but setting aside all other concerns, went immediately from  Tarsus where he was at that time upon business to Aegas; pretending himself sick, and that he wanted Aesculapius 's assistance.
Therefore coming to  Aesculapius, as he was walking alone by himself, he intreated him to introduce him to the God. Whereupon Apollonius answer'd, What need have you of one to introduce you, if you your self be a good man? But replied he the God hath made you his Guest, but not me as yet. By  Jupiter, said he, I will do it, after I have made one request to you. What may that be which you would request of me, said Apollonius? And this he spake very effeminately, watering his Cheeks with Tears: for there is nothing so mean or base, to which such vicious and infamous men will not condescend.
Then  Apollonius looking upon him with a stern countenance, said, Oh vile wretch, thou art mad! Whereupon the other falling into a Rage, threatned to cut off his Head. At which Apollonius smiling, cryed out,  Oh that pleasant day! These and many other such like things are written of him by Maximus the Aegean. In Peru the greatest Ears are ever esteem'd the fairest; those of Mexico esteem the least Foreheads, the most beautiful. And blubber'd thick Lips, with a broad flat Nose, is generally beloved amongst the Indians ; as also Teeth spotted with black or red, and long great Dugs, wherewith they may give their little ones suck over their Shoulders.
Vt natura dedit, sic omnis recta figura: Turpis Romano Belgicus ore color. A man shall often see Faces, that if you examine them part by part, you shall find never a good feature, and yet all together agreeable enough. That is the best part of Beauty which a Picture cannot express. Fair and Good are near Neighbours, and express'd by the self-same words both in Greek and in the Scriptures. Many great Philosophers have attained to their Wisdom by the assistance of their Beauty. Bacon 's Essays, and Charron of Wisd.
Deformed persons are generally even with Nature, and as Nature hath doneill by them, so do they by Nature, being for the most part void of natural affection. Certainly there is a consent between the Body and the Mind, and where Nature erreth in the one, she ventureth in the other: Vbi peccat in uno, periclitatur in altero. Deformed persons, saith the Lord Bacon, chiefly endeavour to free themselves from scorn, which must be done either by vertue or malice: therefore let us not wonder, if there have been persons eminent not only for Beauty, but also for Deformity, that yet have been both eminent for Vertue.
The chief Vice whereof the Beautiful are guilty, is Pride; Sequitur superbia formam ; as vainly esteeming themselves upon the meer liberality of Nature: which nothing but the Addresses, Courtship, and Admiration of others make them understand in themselves. Ennius Cic. Secondly, God must have appointed this Mediator, and so was really reconciled to the World before. Thus therefore, besides their particular and Topical Deities, they moreover acknowledged one supream God; not Iupiter of Crete, but the Father of Gods and Men. Only they said, that this supream God being of so high a Nature, and there being other intermediate Beings betwixt God and Mankind, they were to address themselves to them as Mediators, to carry up their prayers, and bring down his blessings: so as the opinion of a Mediator, was the foundation of the Heathens Idolatry; they not being able to go to the Fountain of Good it self.
And thus we see, this invocation of Saints which is now peculiar to the Church of Rome, was no other than an old Relick of the Heathen Idolatry, and taken from their invocation of Daemons: who as St. Plato 's Symbolum. And St. Pliny writes, that it was not lawful for any man to bear an Office five days, unless he were sworn: as amongst us at this day, such Officers are obliged to take such and such Oaths, before they are admitted into any Office of Trust in the Government. However, considering the dull apprehensions of the Vulgar, I could wish that some more execrable form of words were inserted in our Oaths, which might I am perswaded more terrifie the unthinking Crowd, than the phrase we now use.
I have my self known a silly old Woman, that having taken her Oath in one of the Courts of Westminster, and being afterwards asked by the Judges whether she was sworn, told them, no, ignorantly believing that those words, You shall swear the Truth, and nothing but the Truth, were only preparatory, and in order to some horrid Execration which she was afterwards to take.
This Oath was then invented by Iupiter, and prescribed by him to the rest of the Gods, when he had the assistance of Styx and his Sons against the Tytans ; or when he drank of the Water to quench his thirst in the Fight. Some swore by the Name of Hephaestion ; and C. Caligula esteem'd Drusilla to be the most sacred Name he could swear by. This Ceremony Menelaus in Euripides demanded of Helena. Radamanthus the justest man that ever lived had expresly forbid them to swear by the Gods, but instead thereof, allowed them the use of a Dog, a Goose, a Ram, or such like Creatures.
Sometimes they swore by the Ground, as Hippolytus does in Euripides, vers. Now as well amongst the ancient Heathens as Christians, he that made conscience of swearing right was esteem'd Religious, whereas on the contrary, they express'd a wicked man by the Name of perjurious. Both Minutius and Tertullian write, that they esteem'd it a more hainous crime to swear false by their Kings than by their Gods; and were more severely punish'd for it.
Augustine tells us, that it was a custom amongst the Christians of the Primitive Church, to decide matters in controversie by Oaths at the Tombs of Martyrs. Some desire to trade with men of that perswasion before any other, but for my own part I have never met with greater Fourbs than those Quaking Saints, who cheat by the Spirit. The ancient Romans, as well their Senate as Magistrates, were most exact and punctual in the observation of Oaths and Promises, even to their very Enemies, for the regard they had not only to Justice, and to their own Reputation, but also to the consequence of their good Example in the Commonwealth.
The like may be also cited of T.
CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME
Veturius, and Spurius Posthumus, Consuls; likewise of T. Mutius, and Q. Cicero, lib. Cicero tells us, that Fides est Fundamentum Iustitiae. Also in Thucydides, lib.